Title I is the largest federally funded program in education. It was signed into law in 1965 by President Lyndon Johnson.
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) or Title I was designed to help students having difficulties with reading by providing funds for extra academic help. Since its inception, Title I has gone through various changes, but it continues to provide instructional help for students experiencing academic difficulty. Funding is given directly to the schools and is based upon poverty levels.
The 2001 reauthorization of ESEA (known as the No Child Left Behind or NCLB Act) builds upon a standards driven reform enacted in 1994. Under this reauthorization, states are required to implement standards and assessments aligned to those standards. Schools are required to annually assess every student in grades 3-8 in reading. States must establish proficiency goals and then make "adequate yearly progress" or "AYP" toward meeting those goals.
The reauthorization of Title I, the largest program in the ESEA, requires that schools and school districts provide funding and other resources to increase parent involvement in education.